has the advantages of no pollution, easy operation, energy saving and high efficiency compared to internal combustion forklift. In recent years, electric forklifts have developed rapidly, and the proportion of electric forklifts sales to the total sales of forklifts has increased year by year. At present, there are many types of small tonnage balanced heavy electric forklifts, which are divided into three-fulcrum forklifts and four-fulcrum forklifts according to the structure. Due to the different driving methods, the three-fulcrum forklifts are divided into front-wheel-driven forklifts and rear-wheel-driven forklifts. These types of electric forklifts have their own advantages and disadvantages due to the different applicable environments. Users should choose reasonably according to the operating conditions in order to maximize the efficiency of forklifts.
Analysis of the operation conditions of three-fulcrum electric forklifts with front-wheel-drive and rear-wheel-drive
Three-fulcrum electric forklifts are divided into front-wheel-driven forklifts and rear-wheel-driven forklifts according to the different driving forms. The two structural forms also have their own characteristics. The front-wheel-drive is driven by two double motors and has strong power. Since the load of the forklift is in front, the load of the front bridge is large. Especially when it is fully loaded, the load of the front bridge is about 90 % of the full load of the vehicle, so the power required to drive the vehicle is greater. In general, foreign three-fulcrum electric forklifts generally use two 4.5 kW Motors, a total of 9 kW. The driving principle of the three-fulcrum rear-driven electric forklift is to use the lower load rear wheel as the driving wheel, so the required driving force is greatly reduced. A 1.5 t electric forklift uses a 4kW motor, which significantly reduces the vehicle's power and drive current, and saves electricity when used.
Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of the three-fulcrum electric forklifts with the front-wheel-drive and the rear-wheel-drive are compared as follows:
The driving power of the front-wheel-drive is strong, but more electricity is consumed, which increases the daily cost. The rear-wheel-driven forklift has low running current. The whole vehicle works in a low current safety range, and its reliability is greatly improved. Compared with the front-wheel-drive, its price is lower, and it is more energy-saving and efficient. For example, in a standard single-shift operation, the 1.5 T front-wheel-driven electric forklift uses a 48V450Ah battery, while the same tonnage rear-driven three-fulcrum electric forklift uses a 48V380Ah battery, and the purchase cost and daily use costs are significantly reduced.
Therefore, the small tonnage rear-wheel-driven electric forklift will be more cost-effective. The disadvantage is that the rear wheel is light and can't play its driving performance when the road condition is poor due to the limited adhesion. Therefore, it is not suitable for the operation requirements of the muddy field.
In conclusion, the appropriate structure of electric forklift should be selected according to the requirements of the operating environment. If the use environment is flat cement road and the goods weight is less than 1.8t, the three-fulcrum rear-driven electric forklift will be more cost-effective. If the operating environment is indoor and outdoor, where the road condition is not good, and both the mobility and the sufficient power are taken into account, the three-fulcrum electric forklift driven by the front wheel should be used to increase the power. If the cargo weight is more than two tons and there is no restriction on the environmental passage, the four-fulcrum electric forklift should be adopted as far as possible due to the comprehensive economic and stability factors.